Asbestos and fibre samples are examined with a polarised light microscope, and an electron microscope if necessary. All air samples are examined with an electron microscope.
Fibre analyses detect possible harmful particles which may come from ventilation ducts and filters, or acoustic panels. Because such fibres cause irritation, indoor air examinations should begin with a dust-composition analysis of various surfaces, for example.
Kiilto's asbestos and fibre analyses:
- Building material sample with polarised light microscope
- Building material sample with electron microscope
- Air sample with electron microscope (includes polycarbonate membrane filter)
- Wipe sample with electron microscope
- Dust composition of wipe sample with electron microscope
- Deposit sample: mineral wool deposit with polarised light microscope (gel-tape method, including sample-taking equipment)
Chemical analyses of material samples also contribute to indoor air analyses and occupational safety investigations, but may even affect waste disposal methods.
PAH analysis of material
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, or PAH compounds, are made of two or more benzene rings. PAH compounds can originate in old bitumen or coal tar-based waterproofing.
PCB analysis of material
Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCB compounds, are harmful to the environment. Their use is banned, but material must be checked for PCBs when disposing of waste from demolitions.
Heavy metal and lead analysis of materials
Levels of heavy metals and lead (Pb) must often be analysed during waste handling. Heavy metals are often found in old paints, plastic mats and grout.
PVC analysis of material
Polyvinyl chloride or PVC is a plastic material which cannot be disposed of by burning, due to the banned chlorine compounds this creates. PVC materials must be collected separately and can be burned to generate energy only in large combustion plants, a small amount at a time. PVC is frequently used in building materials such as pipes.